Song song với thể chủ động thì chúng mình còn sử dụng rất nhiều câu bị động trong quá trình học tập và rèn luyện. Câu bị động được dùng khi ta muốn nhấn mạnh vào hành động trong câu.
1. Cấu trúc ngữ pháp câu bị động:
|Thì||Cấu trúc||Ví dụ câu bị động|
|Thì hiện tại đơn (Simple Present):||S + be (am/is/are) + PP +…||Ex: He likes chickens. -> Chickens are liked|
|Thì quá khứ đơn (Past Simple):||S + was/were + PP +…||Ex: The storm destroyed the city last night. -> The city was destroyed by the storm last night.|
|Thì hiện tại tiếp diễn (Present Continuous):||S + be (am/is/are) + being + PP +…||Ex: He is reading a book. -> A book is being read (by him).|
|Thì quá khứ tiếp diễn (Past Continuous):||S + was/were + being + PP +…||Ex: They were listening to music. -> Music was being listened to (by them).|
|Thì hiện tại hoàn thành (Present Perfect):||S + have/has + been + PP +…||Ex: They have studied English for two months. -> English has been studied (by them) for two months.|
|Thì quá khứ hoàn thành (Past Perfect):||S + had + been + PP +…||Ex: They had done the exercises. > The exercises had been done (by them).|
|Thì tương lai đơn (Simple Future):||S + will/shall + be + PP +…||Ex: They will cut the grass tomorrow. -> The grass will be cut (by them) tomorrow.|
|Thì tương lai tiếp diễn (Future Continuous):||S + will/shall + be + being + PP +…||Ex: She will be helping you when you come here tomorrow. -> You will be being helped (by her) when you come here tomorrow|
|Thì tương lai hoàn thành (Future Perfect):||S + will/shall + have + been + PP +…||Ex: They will have finished the course by the end of this month. -> The course will have been finished by the end of this month|
Ngoài ra còn một số những cấu trúc câu bị động thường dùng sau:
- Active: S + should/could + have + PP + O.
Passive: S + should/could + have +been + PP +…
Ex: You should have bought this book. -> This book should have been bought.
- Dùng “It” làm chủ ngữ (mệnh đề làm tân ngữ vẫn được giữ nguyên)
Ex: They said that he is kind to you.
-> It is said that he is kind to you.
- Dùng cấu trúc câu bị động với động từ nguyên mẫu:
-Nếu hành động trong mệnh đề làm tân ngữ xảy ra trước hành động của mệnh đề chính, chúng ta dùng: perfect infinitive (to have + PP)
Ex: They said that he had killed the woman.
-> He was said to have killed the woman.
- Nếu hành động trong mệnh đề làm tân ngữ xảy ra sau hành động trong mệnh đề chính, chúng ta sử dụng: simple infinitive (to + Vo)
Ex: They expect that you will come. -> You are expected to come.
- Nếu hành động trong mệnh đề làm tận ngữ xảy ra đồng thời với hành động trong mệnh đề chính, ta dùng: present infinitive (to be + V-ing)
Ex: They said that he was doing homework. -> He was said to be doing homework.
2. BÀI TẬP CÂU BỊ ĐỘNG TRONG TIẾNG ANH:
Change the following sentences from active into passive form.
- Somebody has taken my briefcase.
- The teacher returned our written work to us.
- She had finished her report by soon.
- The mad dog bit the little boy.
- The police have arrested five suspects.
- The doctor ordered him to take a long rest.
- Lightening struck the house.
- A group of students have met their friends at the rail way station.
- They didn’t allow Tom to take these books home.
- The teacher won’t correct exercises tomorrow.
- Marry has operated Tom since 10 o’clock.
- This is the second time they have written to us about this.
- Mr. Smith has taught us French for two year.
- They didn’t look after the children properly.
- Nobody swept this street last week.
- People drink a great deal of tea in England.
- People speak English all over the world.
- Tom was writing two poems.
- She often takes her dog for a walk.
- They can’t make tea with cold water.
- The chief engineer was instructing all the workers of the plan.
- Somebody has taken some of my book away.
- They will hold the meeting before the May Day.
- They have to repair the engine of the car.
- The boys broke the window and took away some pictures.
- People spend a lot of money on advertising everyday.
- They may use this room for the classroom.
- The teacher is going to tell a story.
- Marry is cutting the cake with a sharp knife.
- The children looked at the women with a red hat.
- She used to pull my hat over my eyes.
- For the past years, I have done all my washing by hand.
- A pair of Robins has built a nest in the porch since last week.
- The police haven’t found the murderer yet.
- They sold one of her paintings at $1,000.
- I will put your gloves back in the drawer.
- People speak English in almost every corner of the world.
- You mustn’t use the machine after 5.30 p.m.
- Luckily for me, they didn’t call my name.
- After class, one of the students always erases the chalk board.
Hi vọng với bài chia sẻ trên các bạn đã nắm được phần nào về cấu trúc cũng như cách dùng của câu bị động. Để tìm hiểu thêm các kiến thức bổ ích khác của Elight, các bạn có thể tìm hiểu TẠI ĐÂY.